USB Type A
USB comes from Universal Serial Bus, and the idea behind this generous name was that this type of interface would connect the computer to any type of equipment, eliminating old ports, such as the serial port or the parallel port. USB cables now allow data transfer and more.
USB Type B
USB Type B interface is generally used to connect peripherals such as the printer or scanner.
MINI USB and micro USB
These are interfaces used to connect small equipment, such as the camera or mobile phone, to the computer.
IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
This is an obsolete alternative to the USB interface. It was popularized by Apple as FireWire; Sony called it i.LINK. This connector is used for data transfer between a digital camera and a computer. A newer version is FireWire 800.
RJ45 is the type of connector that you are used to seeing connected to a router or to your computer’s network port.
eSATA (External Serial ATA) cable is a type of serial ATA interface that connects the hard disk to the computer.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) connector allows the connection to the computer of all electronic equipment that can be connected to the computer. It is used for high-definition image transfer and replaces analog connections (like S Video).
You can look at this site https://iec.net/ to find technical information regarding cable connectivity.